A History of Hand-Made Lace (1900)
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Identifying Lace: various names and techniques
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Find out more about your rights as a buyer - opens in a new window or tab and exceptions - opens in a new window or tab. Questions and answers about this item. Historical Honiton lace designs focused on scrollwork and depictions of natural objects such as flowers and leaves. Honiton lace is a part lace. Its ornate sprigs or motifs, complex patterns were created separately and then sewn into the net ground of the piece. The art of making lace is rumored to have been brought to Honiton, England by Flemish refugees in the mid-to-late 16th century.
In the early period approx. Later approx. Not a leaf, nor a flower, was copied from nature. Handmade lacework had a resurgence in popularity in the 19th century when Queen Victoria ordered a Honiton lace bridal dress. The revival happened so quickly, and demand was so great, that a cheaper-quality lace was produced in large quantities.
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The smooth, unpatterned tulle produced on these machines was on a par with real, handmade lace net. Heathcoat's bobbinet machine is so ingeniously designed that the ones used today have suffered little alteration. The ones that stand out are the Pusher machine , the Levers machine now spelled Leavers and the Nottingham lace curtain machine.
Each of these developed into separate machines. Others were the Traverse Warp machine and the Straight Bolt machine. The stocking frame, invented in by Lee , consisted of a stout wooden frame. It did straight knitting not tubular knitting. It had a separate needle for each loop- these were low carbon steel bearded needles where the tips were reflexed and could be depressed onto a hollow closing the loop.
A history of hand-made lace
The needle were supported on a needle bar that passed back and forth, to and from the operator. The beards were simultaneously depressed by a presser bar. The first machine had 8 needles per inch and was suitable for worsted: The next version had 16 needles per inch and was suitable for silk. The bobbinet machine , invented by John Heathcoat in Loughborough, Leicestershire, in ,  makes a perfect copy of Lille or East Midlands net fond simple, a six-sided net with four sides twisted, two crossed. The machine uses flat round bobbins in carriages to pass through and round vertical threads.
In Samual Clark and James Mart constructed a machine that was capable of working a pattern and net at the same time. A pusher operated each bobbin and carriage independently allowing almost unlimited designs and styles. The machine however was slow, delicate, costly and could produce only short "webs" of about two by four yards. Synyer in Production had its heydays in the s and ceased around — The name of the machine was the Leavers machine the 'a' was added to aid pronunciation in France.
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The original machine made net but it was discovered that the Jacquard apparatus invented in France for weaving looms by J M Jacquard in about could be adapted to it. From lace complete with pattern, net and outline could be made on the Leavers machine. The Leavers machine is probably the most versatile of all machines for making patterned lace.