Wahlsystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German Edition)

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The research takes place within the context of a development debate and practice, which identifies water as a key poverty issue in a substantial part of the developing countries, which advocates private sector participation as a remedy to inadequate water management and which acknowledges good governance as a crucial requirement for development. Nevertheless, few studies have scrutinized the impact of governance and institutions on the outcome of PSP arrangements in the water sector.

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Most research on the performance of PSP arrangements has examined exogenous and endogenous determinants, such as the price mechanism and the property rights allocation, but these factors proved unsatisfactory as explaining variables in the context of natural resource management. To contribute to filling a gap in research this study aims at evaluating the impact of institutional frameworks on the outcome of private sector participation in water supply and sanitation through a case study of the Management Contract for Water and Wastewater Service in the Amman Governorate, Jordan.

The research takes into account the specific institutional framework for the mentioned arrangement in Amman, which is comprised of the national judicial and political institutions, the specific regulatory institutions as well as relevant international institutions. The specific objective of this study is to show how the institutional framework of a transaction affects regulatory processes by abating and amplifying the potential for opportunistic behavior of the contracting parties, and thereby affecting the performance of a privately operated water utility.

The examination of the institutional framework of the Amman Management Contract revealed that mainly judicial and international institutions and specific contract rules were constraining the discretion of the contracting parties. Political checks and balances were insufficiently established and the regulatory institutions of the water sector were set up in an improper way. The field study discovered that the resulting discretionary power of certain actors was used opportunistically, which had a detrimental effect on the outcome of the PSP arrangement.

Nevertheless the overall performance of the arrangement was good from which the general insight was drawn that regulatory credibility may be developed even in unpropitious environments. ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] The promotion of oil producing plants for production of biofuel has come to the fore most recently as a result of the concept of it being used to try and uplift livelihoods among rural communities. There are many arguments in favour and against biofuels. However, a current debate focuses on the possible negative social and environmental implications, especially with regards to land competition and sustainability assurance.

There has been growing concern on taking arable land out of food production and allocating its use to production of energy crops.

Experience gained with the establishment of Jatropha hedges, collection of Jatropha seeds, oil extraction and use of Jatropha oil to run diesel engines present a tremendous potential for developing rural industries and utilizing bio fuel energy. However, establishing oil milling plants as a strategy to provide energy to remote and scattered rural villages requires substantial investment amounts of money and therefore this justifies the need for doing an evaluation to objectively verify the financial viability and economic desirability of the schemes.

Interestingly, this analysis of Jatropha hedges and oil milling schemes in rural Zimbabwe shows that energy crops such as Jatropha have the potential for increasing increasing the economic welfare of people in the rural areas. It analyses the resettlement and reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons IDPs in Sierra Leone in terms of policies applied, actors involved and problems encountered. It also tests the Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction Model Cernea, which has been primarily developed for development-induced displacement but claims to be applicable to conflict-induced displacement.

Through the analysis of major policy documents on resettlement and interviews with IDPs, Government and international partners in Sierra Leone, the research has come to the following conclusions. First, IDPs in Sierra Leone are prone to a number of risks that are similar to that predicted by the IRR model: joblessness, homelessness, lack of access to health facilities, food insecurity, community disarticulation, lack of access to cultural resources, loss of property, and problems of access to education. However, landlessness and marginalisation are not part of the risks identified.

Second, the resettlement process suffered insufficient sensitisation, insufficient respect for safety and dignity principles and some IDP camps were still populated by people who claim to be left out after the resettlement process had been declared over. Third, many IDPs have developed coping strategies as a response to the gaps identified.

Those who could not cope in their communities resorted to new waves of economically motivated displacement. From a policy point of view, an integrated approach to resettlement that reverses the identified risks is paramount to rebuilding livelihoods in war-affected communities. ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] Oilseed is the third most important export item in Ethiopian foreign trade. It has registered a high export growth rate over recent years both in terms of volume and value.

Besides its growing share in export, it is widely used for the extraction of edible oil and oilcake that is supplied to the domestic market.

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Although farmers are the primary producers of oilseeds, they are not able to benefit from the growing market share of the product due to the fact that they find themselves at the end of an extended market chain. As a result, they only receive a very small proportion of what the final buyers are paying for the oilseed products. In addition, there is not much experience on the part of the farmers to process oilseeds, change it to edible oil and oilcake and retain the value addition in the local economy. This research used the global value chain approach to investigate the possibilities for the primary producers to increase their income share form the selling of their products either by directly selling to exporters or by processing oilseeds, producing edible oil and oilcake, and retaining the value addition in the local economy.

The research found out that it is possible to increase the income of the primary producers through establishing a modular relationship between international buyers, exporters and farmers. It also argued that income could be upgraded through improving quality, supplying organic products, improving the market information system and market infrastructure facilities as well as through provision of micro credits to oilseeds farmers.

The research underscored that theoretically it is possible to increase the income of the primary producers through locally processing oilseeds and selling edible oil and oilcake. But the low demand of edible oil and oilcake, the high competition from imported edible oils and the better economic position of local oil processing firms makes it difficult to viably run a small rural oil processing plant at farmers level in the research location.

The research concludes that farmers need to organize themselves in a cooperative so that they can be able to take a collective action to realize the intended income change. Such cooperative needs to be organized in a corporate governance structure where elected farmers are represented in the board while an independent management runs the day-to-day activities of the cooperative. Um nicht zur Reparaturwerkstatt von Staaten zu werden, die durch Kriege verheert wurden, stellte sich daher Mitte der er-Jahre in der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit ein Paradigmenwechsel ein.

ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] The working paper contributes to the discussion of political instruments of conflict management by providing empirical evidence on decentralisation as a means of conflict management. The case study used in this paper is Kibaale District in Western Uganda. After independence migrants from southwestern Uganda settled in the sparsely populated district. They compete with the original population over the available land.

In March Fred Ruremera — a member of the migrant community — was elected as the district chairman head of local government. His election was not accepted by the original inhabitants and sparked ethnic conflict and widespread violence. Peace was only restored after the President of Uganda, Yoweri Museveni, intervened, Fred Ruremera agreed not to assume office and a compromise candidate was installed in his place.

While positive impacts of decentralisation on conflict are expected because of the increased participation and the possibility of addressing local problems at the local level, negative impacts can stem from increased competition over resources and access to power.

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The paper identifies four general factors that determine whether decentralisation acts as a means of conflict management: the legal framework of the decentralisation policy, freedom from outside interventions into the workings of local government, the inclusiveness of local government and the type of conflict. The paper comes to the conclusion that — contrary to expectation — decentralisation and the increased participation have increased and created conflict rather than managed it.

The reason lies mostly in the design of the decentralisation policy: The electoral system provides for the direct election of the chairman by plurality — not majority of the population and in the position of the district chairman power is actually re-centralised. Local government is also not sufficiently independent from central government, with constitutional clauses in case of a state of emergency allowing a high degree of control.

ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] In this paper we demonstrate that the Post-Keynesian Two-Gap Model merits its destiny as a ghost in economic discussions not only as a result of the well-known neoclassical criticism on its assumptions but also because of its general inconsistency. If adjusted for this inconsistency the Two-Gap Model, which stresses the limits to growth set by domestic savings savings gap , and foreign currency reserves foreign currency gap , turns into a Harrod-Domar-type One-Gap Model with domestic savings and capital inflows as sole determinants defining a country's limitations to grow economically.

Therefore, the model can no longer be used, not even for analyzing the variation of a developing country's short term limits of growth brought about, e. Instead we are proposing an extended structural closed economy one-sector neoclassical growth model which could be applied to a small open low income country LIC where the growth potential is highly restrained by too low domestic savings and by foreign exchange shortages.

This model demonstrates that development strategies which rely on net borrowing abroad leads to a position of sustainable foreign indebtedness provided that all capital imports are used for investment financing but such strategy in general turn out to be immiserizing. ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] Economic welfare of people in the rural areas can be enhanced through increase in agricultural productivity and development of rural enterprises.

Both of these approaches depend highly on the accessibility of commercial sources of energy. As there is a high potential for the utilization of hydropower in Nepal and considering that the rural communities are isolated and scattered, micro hydro MH systems serve as a viable alternative for enhancing the economic welfare in rural areas. As the establishment of MH systems require considerable resources, it is necessary to first evaluate the systems' economic desirability to gather its net welfare effect on the rural population.

Interestingly, the analysis shows that MH systems can be a highly effective means of increasing the economic welfare of people in the rural areas, even though it may be in a weak financial situation. However, bearing in mind the need to ensure the long-term sustainability of these MH systems in delivering services, the financial viability of a system therefore becomes a crucial consideration.

Im Mittelpunkt der Analyse stehen die politischen Parteien des Landes, die auf ihren Beitrag zur Konsolidierung der demokratischen Ordnung hin untersucht werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit soll jener Behauptung widersprochen werden. Die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit wird immer noch eher als karitative Pflicht als partnerschaftliche Zusammenarbeit verstanden.

ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] With the recent wave of democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa a new interest in elected local councils has appeared. The importance of elected local governments in promoting democracy is now emphasised by both national actors and the international community. In this paper these broader arguments will be narrowed down to a theoretical focus on local electoral rules and the geographical area of the countries of Southern Africa.

The paper presents data for all Southern African countries on the types of elected bodies at sub-national level of government, the composition of local councils, the regularity and simultaneity of local and national elections, the electoral systems and the rules governing candidature at the local level. Electoral rules are just one set of institutions that matter in local politics, and there is no doubt that other variables such as local administration, resource allocation or capacity-building are equally important.

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But the assumption is that local electoral institutions are relevant for the democratisation of both local and national politics, and should thus merit closer scrutiny. The comparative study of different countries offers additional insights with regard to similarities or specific constraints and problems that countries face in organising local elections and the institutional solutions that they eventually opted for. The paper also explores some likely consequences and impacts of these differing rules on the political process of these countries and highlight several issues that might be of relevance for the debate about the viability and consolidation of democratic politics in the region, both at local and national level.

ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] Judicial enforcement of contracts can have an effect on credit market performance because it influences the risk and costs of credit transactions. This paper documents this point by empirically investigating the relation between the efficiency of judicial systems and credit market development around the world. The efficiency of the judicial system is measured by its speed and simplicity.

Regression results show that, apart from traditional variables such as the level of income or inflation rate, indicators of judicial enforcement were also statistically significant in explaining credit market development. Long litigation processes and complex procedures inversely correlated to indicators of credit market development.

Countries with better judicial enforcement display more developed credit markets, represented by a larger size of the banking sector and a higher proportion of credit granted to the private sector. ISBN vergriffen [ Abstract ] To explain the growth dynamics in the transition economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union the relative importance of monetary variables is analysed. A theoretical as well as an empirical approach are employed to make predictions about how financial development will affect economic growth.

In a simple growth model it is shown that enhanced financial market development should increase the overall growth rate unambiguously. The empirical analysis, following approaches conducted for industrial and developing countries, includes a wide set of indicators, each of them capturing different aspects of financial development. Actually, on the basis of different econometric estimations a significant growth impact of financial development is identified for the economies under study. Beside increasing investment, total factor productivity has to be considered as an important transmission channel, which is influenced by financial development.

Their organisational structure and function, as well as future role in the decentralization process is currently under intense debate. Building and strengthening institutions plays a predominant role in development cooperation and the question whether institutions are amenable to design is of utmost importance to donor agencies.

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In this light, the paper contributes to the ongoing debate on designing policies for institution building. The paper explores the origin and development of the CDAs. Based on theoretical concepts of new institutionalism, the study analyses the reasons for their emergence as well as the explanatory factors for their contrasting developments in El Salvador's different departments.

The analysis is linked to a legal assessment of the nature and competencies of the CDAs. Furthermore, the paper outlines some of the main challenges the CDAs are facing today. The study concludes that the emergence of the CDAs in can be traced back to roughly congruent interests between USAID and the Salvadoran Government, which created coordinating bodies at departmental level for the purpose of counterinsurgency. As far as the development of the CDAs is concerned, the case studies undertaken in four different departments of El Salvador illustrate that many of the differences today can only be explained by the divergent interests of the actors involved.

However, the analysis also reveals that institutions, once set in place, can take their own life, and possibly proceed into a direction not foreseen by their creators.