World Yearbook of Education 1980: The Professional Development of Teachers
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About Eric Hoyle.
World Yearbook of Education 1980 : The Professional Development of Teachers
Teacher Education: The Challenge of the Seventies. Crisis and Change in Teacher Education. Teacher Education and National Development. The Democratization of Education. International Perspectives on the Preparation of Educational Personnel. Perceptions of violence: The views of teachers who left urban schools. The High School Journal , 89 , 34 — The journal of multiculturalism in education , 8 , 1 — Because teaching in urban areas is challenging, it would be expected for beginning teachers to be provided with additional support in the beginning phase of their career, for instance in the form of a professional development programme that focuses on urban teaching.
The programme, which was developed collaboratively by the teacher education institutes in Amsterdam, had a twofold purpose: to increase the quality of teaching and contribute to the retention of beginning teachers in the urban educational context. The programme focused on the core competences required for urban teaching, including dealing with cultural diversity and language differences, cooperating within the school environment and ensuring safety.
The intention was that participants would increase their expertise in these four areas as a result of their participation in the programme.
The content of the programme was focused on the acquisition of skills necessary to meet the challenges of teaching in a complex urban environment, such as collaborating with professionals both in- and outside the school environment, addressing aggressive behaviour and language deficiencies of children, communicating with parents of different cultural backgrounds - and on developing an extended professional orientation.
The programme lasted one year and consisted of the following three components: group meetings these involved theoretical input from experts, opportunities for sharing experiences and group assignments , classroom application participants apply new insights to their teaching practices and lectures in which experts explored urban themes.
Additionally, supervision was organised, offering a context for beginning teachers to share experiences and expertise. The participants were divided into groups of approximately 15 members and the groups met once every two weeks at a teacher training institute. The groups were accompanied within each theme by experts i.
The effects of the programme were investigated one year after the teachers completed the programme. The research questions of this study were formulated as follows: 1. The first research question was investigated using a quasi-experimental design with an experimental and control group. Pre-measures administered before the beginning of the programme , post-measures conducted directly after completing the programme and retention measures administered one year after completion were used. The second research question was investigated through interviews.
All participants were teachers who taught at a primary school in the capital of the Netherlands Amsterdam.
These teachers joined in the study voluntarily. Teachers from the control group participated in professional development programmes that were not focused on urban themes. In total, 44 of the 67 teachers from the control group and 28 of the 66 teachers from the experimental group completed the retention measurement.
World Yearbook of Education The Professional Development of Teachers - CRC Press Book
Whether the group of teachers who completed the retention measurement was comparable to the group who did not complete the measurement was determined for both the experimental and control groups by comparing the post-measurement scores. To derive obvious conclusions regarding the effects of the intervention, a matching procedure was developed whereby the participants of both conditions were matched on several potentially interfering variables. The conditions appeared to be comparable for all characteristics see Table 1.
These 10 teachers and nine of their school principals were interviewed.
World Yearbook of Education 1980: The Professional Development of Teachers
In total, nine schools were included in the qualitative study. All participants joined in the study voluntarily. Before the start of the interviews, the teachers and principals were informed about the interview procedure, the anonymous processing of the data and the opportunity to discontinue their involvement in the interviews at any time.
A questionnaire and test were used to measure the different dependent variables. The questionnaires were administered before, immediately after and one year after completion of the programme pre-, post- and retention test. The questionnaires that were used for the retention test were identical to those administered for the pre- and post-test. The period between the measurements was identical for both the experimental and control groups namely, one year.
Competences for teaching in an urban environment were operationalised as knowledge of methods of coping with language differences, threats to safety, cultural diversity and various actors in the school. To measure these competences in terms of knowledge , a knowledge test was developed by the educators of the programme in collaboration with the researchers. We realise that knowledge is a poor operationalisation of competence, but in the context of the programme this was the most feasible method of measurement.
The knowledge test consisted of 54 multiple-choice questions that addressed four urban themes. The teachers were asked to choose the best answer from four alternatives. The following is an example of a question:. The right answer is 2. Professional orientation was measured by the questionnaire that was developed by Jongmans, Biemans, and Beijaard Jongmans, C.
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The questionnaire consists of 13 items. Negative responses were interpreted to indicate a restricted orientation, whereas positive responses were interpreted to indicate an extended professional orientation. Leren met meer effect [Learning with more effect]. This questionnaire was translated and adapted from Kyriacou and Kunc Kyriacou, C.
Teaching and Teacher Education , 23 , — Negative responses were interpreted to indicate low self-efficacy, and positive responses were interpreted to indicate high self-efficacy. The teachers were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed with each of the 10 statements using a five-point scale that ranged from totally disagree to totally agree. Negative responses were interpreted to indicate low motivation for teaching , and positive responses were interpreted to indicate high motivation.
The career choices of the teachers were measured using several questions regarding actual and planned career choices. The questions addressed the intention of the teacher to remain in education in this profession, at this school, in an urban environment , the steps taken to orient into other sectors and the actual actions taken to leave the education profession.
The interviews consisted of two sections. In the first section, the interviewer asked about the perceived influence of the programme on the dependent variables of the quantitative study: competences, professional orientation, self-efficacy, job motivation and career choices.
The second section of the interviews focused on the characteristics and activities considered typical of a PLC that were performed in the schools where teachers reported positive long-term effects of the programme. The respondents were first asked to spontaneously report on these school activities and characteristics. Thereafter, they were asked to respond to a number of school characteristics and activities that are considered important for the ongoing success of professional development in the literature see Table 2.
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Measurement occasions level 1 were treated as nested in teachers level 2. The independent variables in the analyses were condition experimental or control condition and measurement occasion, whereas the dependent variables were competences, professional orientation, self-efficacy, job motivation, and career choices. The assumptions for multilevel modelling were checked, and no violations were observed.
The effect sizes were calculated using the formula of Raudenbush and Liu in Feingold, Feingold, A. Effect sizes for growth-modeling analysis for controlled clinical trials in the same metric as for classical analysis. Psychol Methods , 14 , 43 — Qualitative data analysis 2nd ed. The responses to the interview questions were examined and coded by the first author. Auditing quality of research in social sciences.